Baruch de Spinoza (Hebrew: ברוך שפינוזה‎ Baruch Spinoza, Portuguese: Benedito or Bento de Espinosa,Latin: Benedictus de Spinoza) and later Benedict de Spinoza (in all mentioned languages the given name means "the Blessed") (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch Jewish philosopher.[1]

Revealing considerable scientific aptitude, the breadth and importance of Spinoza's work was not fully realized until years after his death.

By laying the groundwork for the 18th century Enlightenment[2] and modern biblical criticism,[2] he came to be considered one of the great rationalists[2] of the 17th-century philosophy. And his magnum opus, the posthumous Ethics, in which he opposed Descartes' mind–body dualism, has also earned him recognition as one of Western philosophy's most important contributors. Philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel said of all contemporary philosophers, "You are either a Spinozist or not a philosopher at all."[3]