In this paper, we compare the utility of modified versions of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model in explaining mobile learning adoption in higher education in a developing country and evaluate the size and direction of the impacts of the UTAUT factors on behavioural intention to adopt mobile learning in higher education. The data were obtained through a web survey of university students and the models are estimated in a structural equations modelling framework. Many of the UTAUT relationships are confirmed, but some are contradicted. The results suggest that culture and country level differences moderate the UTAUT effects, hence, a straightforward application of the model regardless of the context can lead to non-detection of important relationships and to suboptimal mobile learning promotion strategies. Including attitude in the model is also a prudent modification since it increases its explanatory power.


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